TOEFL iBT托福考試-閱讀測驗介紹


TOEFL托福閱讀考題:大學教科書課本節錄內容

閱讀測驗的考題,是仿大學教科書課本節錄內容,因此主題都是學術課程題材,而且通常是入門介紹,主題包括科學、人文、藝術、生物等,作者可能會介紹專有名詞、作學術論述、或介紹歷史發展演變等。閱讀測驗總共3~4篇,每篇大約700字。閱讀總共有十大題型,出題方向,會問你某個單字的同義字,也會根據某些段落的組織結構,問你因果關係、資訊比較、問題解決方法等。不用擔心你不熟悉某個學術主題,因為需要答題的資訊都會出現在閱讀文章裡,不須自己額外吸收知識。

篇幅長度

3~4篇,每篇700~800字:在托福閱讀測驗中,有兩種你可能會遇到的閱讀長度。一種是3篇閱讀,另一種是4篇。3篇的部分,每篇都要計分,而4篇裡,只有3篇要計分,另一篇是ETS實驗性質考題,不計分,但在考試時你無法分辨哪一篇是實驗考題,所以都要認真回答。每篇閱讀長度大約是700-800字。

閱讀內文

主題多元:閱讀內容通常是學術性質,主題涵蓋廣闊,包含人文、科學、藝術、生物、天文等。像是歐洲的石洞壁畫、工業革命的形成、鯨類動物的智商、人口和氣候、都市化發展、沙漠形成的原因等。(題型範例)

題目類型

托福閱讀總共有10種題目類型,每單篇閱讀測驗,大約有12~14題 (但不一定包含全部10種題型,可能只有7種或8種),所以總共會有36~56個考題 (看你是被分配到3篇或4篇閱讀)。


  • 字彙/片語題 (Vocabulary Questions):選同義字彙或片語。
  • 修辭題 (Rhetorical Questions): 整合型考題,先給一篇閱讀,再聽一篇聽力,最後口說回答問題。
  • 推論題 (Inference Questions): 根據文章內容推論答案。
  • 事實訊息題 (Factual Information Questions):整合型考題,先聽一篇聽力,再口說回答問題。
  • 挑錯題 (Negative Factual Information Questions):哪一個選項是錯誤的?
  • 文句簡化題 (Sentence Simplification): 下面哪句話最能代表此段大意?
  • 文句插入題 (Insert Text Questions):這句話可以插入在這段的哪裡?
  • 文章概要題 (Prose Summary Items):複選題,選擇每個段落的摘要。
  • 指代題 (Reference Questions):這個代名詞代表的是什麼?
  • 配對填表題 (Fill Table Questions):把對的選項配對到格子裡。

題型範例

(來源/Source: ETS 官方網站/ETS Official Site: https://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/SampleQuestions.pdf)

Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction
(隕石的影響和恐龍的絕跡)

There is increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites have had important effects on Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth. Twice in the twentieth century, large meteorite objects are known to have collided with Earth. 5 If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period of geological history. This break in Earth’s history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet 10 became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared. 15 The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the worldwide layer of sediment deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped the planet after the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal iridium and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but 20 very rare in the crust of Earth. Even diluted by the terrestrial material excavated from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified. By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucatán region of Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200 kilometers in diameter. 25 This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The explosion lifted about 100 trillion tons of dust into the atmosphere, as can be determined by measuring the thickness of the sediment layer formedwhen this dust settled to the surface. Such a quantity of material would have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging Earth into a period 30 of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The explosion is also calculated to have produced vast quantities of nitric acid and melted rock that sprayed out over much of Earth, starting widespread fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland. Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs. 35 Several other mass extinctions in the geological record have been tentatively identified with large impacts, but none is sodramatic as the Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their results can be catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things, however, 40 may create opportunities for another group. Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by the event. Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and 45 seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to 50 survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades ago. In 1991 the United States Congress asked NASA to investigate the hazard posed today by large impacts on Earth. The group conducting the 55 study concluded from a detailed analysis that impacts from meteorites can indeed be hazardous. Although there is always some risk that a large impact could occur, careful study shows that this risk is quite small.

1.字彙/片語題(Vocabulary Questions):選意思相近的字彙/片語

➤The word “pose” on line 2 is closest in meaning to

  • a.claim
  • b.model
  • c.assume
  • d.present
2.修辭題 (Rhetorical Questions): 這句話或資訊在這裡有什麼作用?

➤ In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared?

  • a.To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous isthe best-documented of the dozen or so mass extinctions in the geological record
  • b.To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous
  • c.To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceou
  • d.To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster
3.推論題 (Inference Questions): 根據文章內容推論答案

➤ Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the location of the meteorite impact in Mexico?

  • a.The location of the impact site in Mexico was kept secret by geologists from 1980 to 1990.
  • b.It was a well-known fact that the impact had occurred in the Yucatán region.
  • c.Geologists knew that there had been an impact before they knew where ithad occurred.
  • d.The Yucatán region was chosen by geologists as the most probable impactsite because of its climate.
4.事實訊息題 (Factual Information Questions): 哪一個選項是正確的?

➤ According to paragraph 3, how did scientists determine that a large meteorite had impacted Earth?

  • a.They discovered a large crater in the Yucatán region of Mexico.
  • b.They found a unique layer of sediment worldwide.
  • c.They were alerted by archaeologists who had been excavating in theYucatán region.
  • d.They located a meteorite with a mass of over a trillion tons.
5.挑錯題 (Negative Factual Information Questions): 哪一個選項是錯誤的?

➤ According to paragraph 4, all of the following statements are true of the impact at the end of the Cretaceous period EXCEPT:

  • a.A large amount of dust blocked sunlight from Earth.
  • b.Earth became cold and dark for several months.
  • c.New elements were formed in Earth’s crust.
  • d.Large quantities of nitric acid were produced.
6.文句簡化題 (Sentence Simplification): 下面哪句話最能代表此段大意?

注意: 錯誤的選項可能是意思錯誤或漏掉重要訊息

➤ Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the following sentence?
Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades ago.
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • a. Until recently, nobody realized that Earth is exposed to unpredictable violent impacts from space.
  • b.In the last few decades, the risk of a random violent impact from space has increased.
  • c.Since most violent events on Earth occur randomly, nobody can predict when or where they will happen.
  • d.A few decades ago, Earth became the target of random violent events originating in outer space.
7.文句插入題 (Insert Text Questions): 這句話可以插入在這段的哪裡?

➤ Look at the four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage in paragraph 6. This is the criterion emphasized by Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
Where would the sentence best fit? Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. (A) According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. (B) Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. (C) The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. (D)Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. Choose the place where the sentence fits best.

  • a.Option A
  • b.Option B
  • c.Option C
  • d.Option D
8.文章概要題 (Prose Summary Items): 複選題,選擇每個段落的摘要

Directions:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE (3) answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. You can write in the number of the answer choice or the whole sentence.


 Scientists have linked the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous with a meteorite impact on Earth.

  ●  
  ●  
  ●  

Answer choices

  • (1) Scientists had believed for centuries that meteorite activity influenced evolution on Earth.
  • (2) The site of the large meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous period was identified in 1990.
  • (3) There have also been large meteorite impacts on the surface of the Moon, leaving craters like Tycho.
  • (4) An iridium-enriched sediment layer and a large impact crater in the Yucatán provide evidence that a large meteorite struck Earth about 65 million years ago.
  • (5) Large meteorite impacts, such as one at the end of the Cretaceous period, can seriously affect climate, ecological niches, plants, and animals.
  • (6) Meteorite impacts can be advantageous for some species, which thrive, and disastrous for other species, which become extinct.
9.指代題 (Reference Questions): 這個代名詞代表的是什麼?

PS. 針對「隕石影響和恐龍絕跡」這個主題,ETS官網沒有提供和「指代題」相關的題目,但它的題目形式如下 (This question is not from ETS):

➤ The word “it” on line 5 refers to?
Where would the sentence best fit? Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. (A) According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. (B) Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. (C) The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. (D)Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. Choose the place where the sentence fits best.

  • a.Impact
  • b.Dinosaur
  • c.Evidence
  • d.Size
10.配對填表題 (Fill Table Questions) : 把對的選項配對到格子裡

PS. 針對「隕石影響和恐龍絕跡」這個主題,ETS官網沒有提供和「填表題」 相關的題目,但其它主題 (地質學) 的有類似的題目如下(This question is from ETS OG 4th ed.) :

Directions:Three of the answer choices below are used in the passage to illustrate constructive processes, and two are used to illustrate destructive process. Complete the table by matching appropriate answer choices to the processes they are used to illustrate. This question is worth 3 points.

Constructive Processes Destructive Processes

  ●  

  ●  

  ●  

  ●  

  ●  

 

 

Answer choices

  • (1) Scientists had believed for centuries that meteorite activity influenced evolution on Earth.
  • (2) The site of the large meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous period was identified in 1990.
  • (3) There have also been large meteorite impacts on the surface of the Moon, leaving craters like Tycho.
  • (4) An iridium-enriched sediment layer and a large impact crater in the Yucatán provide evidence that a large meteorite struck Earth about 65 million years ago.
  • (5) Large meteorite impacts, such as one at the end of the Cretaceous period, can seriously affect climate, ecological niches, plants, and animals.
  • (6) Meteorite impacts can be advantageous for some species, which thrive, and disastrous for other species, which become extinct.

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